M.Sc. in Microbiology

Course Description : No Data Available

Type of Degree (Diploma/Degree) : Degree
Type of Course : Post Graduate
Duration of Course : Two years course
Venue For Teaching : Department of Microbiology, University of Delhi South Campus, Benito Juarez Road, New Delhi-110021.

Parent Department : Department of Microbiology
Parent Faculty : Faculty of INT. DISP. & APPLIED SCIENCES

Subjects : M.Sc. Microbiology Part-I (1st Year): Paper:
I Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Microorganisms – 60 marks.
II Environmental Microbiology – 60 marks.
III Microbial Physiology and Biochemistry – 60 marks.
IV Virology – 60 marks.
V Molecular Biology (Optional course) 100 marks.
PRACTICAL EXAMINATONS: 160 marks Total : 500

M.Sc. Microbiology Part-II (2nd Year):
VI Pathogenic Microorganisms – 60 marks.
VII Immunology – 60 marks.
VIII Microbial and Molecular Genetics 60 marks.
IX Industrial and Food Microbiology 60 marks.
PRACTICAL EXAMINATONS 160 marks DISSERTATION 100 marks. Total : 500 Grand Total (Part I & II) – 1000.

Subject Syllabus :

M.Sc. Part I
Paper I : Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Microorganisms
1. General account of prokaryotes: The place of prokaryotes in the microbial world, general characteristics, occurrence, nutritional types, kinetics of growth, sexual and asexual reproduction, modes of genetic recombination conjugation, transformation, transduction and economic importance.
2. Classification of prokaryotes: Criteria, numerical taxonomy, nucleic acid hybridization etc.
3. General characteristics of various groups of prokaryotes: Archaebacteria, eubacteria-different groups, mycoplasmas, rickettsiae, chlamydiae, spirochaetes, cyanobacteria, actinomycetes.
4. Ultrastructure of a bacterial cell: Cell wall (biosynthesis of peptidoglycan), cell membrane, capsule, cytoplasmic inclusions, external appendages, nuclear mateial, extranuclear genetic elements, ribosomes, endospore and cysts.
5. General characteristic, structure, classification, life cycles (important forms), sexual and asexual reproduction of yeasts and moulds; economic importance (edible mushrooms, hallucinogenic mushrooms, toxin producing fungi, antibiotics, bioconvesions, SCP, diseases of plants and animals, biological control and industrial applications).
6. General characteristics, structure, different systems of classification, life cycles (important forms), sexual and asexual reproduction, evolutionary trends in algae, applications of algae in agriculture, industry, pharmaceutical and pollution control.

Paper II: Environmental Microbiology
(i) Microorganisms in the natural environments:
Microbes in terrestrial, aquatic, atmospheric and bilogical environments, environmental selecting factors (physical, chemical and biological); microbes in the extreme environments and their adaptations; dispersal of microorganism, and methods for the determiantion of microbial numbers, biomass and activities.
(ii) Significance of microbial activities in the environment:
Role of microorganisms in the cycling of bioelements (carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, sulphur, iron, manganese, silicon etc.); microbial degradation of pesticides and other recalcitrant chemicals 9 xenobiotics); microorganism in mineral recovery; microbial degradation of petrolcum and hydrocarbons; biodeteriroration and control; microbial inoculants in agricultural; biological control.
(iii) Microorganims and pollution:
Microbial aspects of air and water pollution; microbial toxins in the envionment; disposal/treatment of organic solid wastes, sewage and industrial effluents and air pollutants
(iv) Pathogenic microorganisms in the environment:
Air and water-borne diseases; sources of environmental pathogens, mode of transmission and disinfection.

Paper III. Microbial Physiology and Biochemistry:
Section A 1. Growth physiology and kinetics
2. Transport mechanisms in microbes
3. Oxygenicand anoxygenic photosynthesis
4. Heterophic CO2 assimilation: Acetogenesis, methanogenesis, and hydrogen production
5. Nitrogen metabolism: Ammonification, nitrification, and denitrification; nitrogen fixation-symbiotic and asymbiotic, nitrogenase, and the present status of advances in nitrogen fixation.
6. Physiology of motility and bioluminiscence

Section B:
1. Carbohydrate metabolism: various pathways underlying the utilization of different sugars. Biosynthesis and metabolism of other intracellular storage product in different groups of microbes. Electron transport systems, and ATP generation.
2. Biosynthesis and catabolism of amino acids; protein chemistry, purification and sequencing.
3. Metabolism of lipids.
4. Enzymes : Nomenclature and classification, nature, active site mechanism of action, kinetics, allosteric enzyme, muti-enzyme complexes and isozymes; ribozymes and abzymes.
5. Biosynthesis of secondary metabolites viz. antibiotics (penicillin, streptomycin), alkaloids (Ergot toxins).
6. Chemistry and biosynthesis of nucleic acids.

Paper IV : Virology 1. General account: Detailed discussion of icosahedral and helical symmetries of viruses and arrangement of capsomers. Chemical composition of viruses. Cell structure, cultivation, purification, characterization and assay of virues. Effect of physical and chemical agents on viruses. Classification and general properties of major families of viruses including detailed account of their modes of replication. The effect of virus multiplication on the host marcomolecular syntheis. Cell transformation by tumor viruses. Oncogenes. Immune mechanisms in viral infection. Interference and interferon?s, Epidemiology of virus infection. Principles of diagnostic virology, statistical method in virology. Viroids. Prions.
2. Human and animal viruses : Detailed study viz., pathology, pathogenesis, symptomatology, epidemiology, transmission, diagnosis, prevention and control of important genera of viruses causing diseases in man and animals included in the folllowing families: Poxviridae, picornaviridae, paramyxo viridae. DNA tumor viruses, RNA tumor viruses, AIDS.
3. Plant Viruses : Plant tissue culture, Mechanism of virus entry into plant cells. Methods of assay of plant viruses. Biochemical changes induced by virus in plant cellsw. Biology and mode of transmission of plant viruses. Discussion on some of the important plant diseases caused by viruses and their control.
4. Bacteriophages : General principles of phage-bacterium interaction and growth cycle studies of RNA and DNA phages. The biochemistry of phages infected bacterium. Phage genetics.
5. Others : Introduction to virus pathogenic for insects, algae (including cyanophages) andfungi.

Paper V : Molecular Biology (Optional Course)
Introduction:
Genes and chromosomes, one gene one protein theory, evidence for the role of DNA as genetic material Structure of DNA and RNA:
Components of DNA, Watson and Crick model of DNA as double helix, Alternate double helical structures of DNA, Supercoiling of double helix. Introduction to RNA, various forms of RNA
Properties of DNA:
Denaturation and reassociatioj of DNA, GC content and base composition, study of DNA by renaturation kinetics.
Organization of DNA:
Viral DNA, Bacterial DNA and eukaryotic DNA Genomes sequestered in organelles Mutations and Molecular basis of mutations Sequence homology in DNA from various species Palindromes and repeated sequences in eukaryotic DNA
DNA Replication:
General principles, bidirectional replication , semiconservatives nature of replication, semidiscontinuous synthesis-Okazaki fragments, various other models of replication, eyes, rolling circles and D loops. Topology of DNA Replication,
Enzymes involved and mechanisms:
DNA Polymerases-Prokaryotic and eukaryotic, unwinding enzymes, DNA Ligases, Model of replication in E. coli
Repair damage in DNA:
Photoreactivation Excision repairs Recombination (retrieval Mechanisms) SOS system of DNA repair.
Transcription:
Basic Transcription apparatus DNA polymerase various types, initiation elongation and termination of RNA chains, initiation sites, regulation at the promotors, Termiantion sites, in vitro and in vivo system.
Cutting and Trimming stable RNA:
Mechanism of RNA splicing Control of RNA splicing Synthesis of Proteins:
The assembly line for polypeptide synthesis (i) Measurement RNA template in prokaryotic and eukaryotes.
(ii) The ribosomes-the site of synthesis.
(iii) tRNA –the translation adaptor.
(iv) Amino acyl tRNA synthesis activation of amino acids Protein factors: Initiation, elongation and termination factors. Main steps :
Initiation, elongation and termination, Post Translational Modifications, Regulation of translation In vitro Translation systems
Paper VI:
Pathogenic Microorganims Section A
Introduction to phytopathogens, symptoms, pathogenesis molecular aspects of plant pathogens, host-pathogens interactions, host defence mechanisms, disease forecasting and assesment of losses, prevention of epidemics, and disease control.
Detailed study of the representative examoles of plant diseases casual by fungi, algae (e.g. Cephaleuros) and bacteria may be laid on those plant diseases which have been covered in B.Sc.)
Section B 1. Host-parasite interrelations i.e. determinants of microbial pathogenicity and antimicrobial defenses of the host.
2. Detailed study of the following genera of pathogenic bacteria : Corynebacterium, Staphylococcus, Streptococcus, Neisseria, Escherichia Klebriella, Proteus, Salmonella, Shigella, Virbrio, Camphylobacter, Pseudomonas, Acinetobacter, Yersinia, Francisella, Pasteurella, Haemophilus, Bordetella, Bacillus, Clostridium, Mycobacterium, Actinomyces, Nocardia, Bacteroides, Fusobacterium, Listeria, Legionella.
3. General description, biological properties and diseases caused by the following groups of pathogens : Mycoplasma , L-phase variants, Rickettsiae, Chlamydiae, Spirochetes.
4. General account of the diseases caused by pathogenic fungi: Trichophyton, Microsporum, Epidermophyton, Sporotrichosis, Rhinosporidiosis, Mycetoma, Coccidioidomycosis, Histoplasmosis, Cryptococcosis, Candidiasis and Aspergillossi. Fungous allergies, Immunology of fungal infection.
5. Preliminary account of biology and infectious potential of protozoas :- Pneumocystis, cryptosporidium and Toxoplasma.
6. Antimicrobial spectrum and mode of action of common antibacterial (Penicillins, Cephalosporins, Chloramphenicol, Streptomycin, Rifampicin, Tetracycline, Erythromycin, Polymyxins, Vancomycin, Nalidixic acid, Ethambutol and Novobiocin) and antifungal (Amphoteriin B, Nystatin, Griseofulvin, Flucytosine, Ketoconazole) agents. Mechanisms of drug resistance in bacteria.

Paper VII : Immunology
1. General account : cells and organs of immune system. Fundamental concepts in immunology-antibody specificity, diversity, memory and self non-self discrimination. Theories of antibody production, Immunogenes, Immunoglobulins fine structure classification, function synthesis and evolutionary aspects. Membrane bound forms of immunoglobulins. Genetic basis of antibody diversity. Hybridoma production. Monoclonal antibodies general properties and applications. Antigen-antibody reactions. Complement system. Basic biology of B cells and T cells their ontogeny, subsets and functions. Phagocytosis. Triggering of immune reponse both humoral and cell mediated. Antibody formation. Mechanism of cell mediated immunity (CMI). Mitogens. Adjuveants. Immune tolerance developing and mechanism. Immunosuppression. Immunological hazards of transfusion. Immunological methods immunofluorescence, immunoelectrophores,counter current immunoeletrophoresis, RIA, ELISA and immunoblotting. Germ free animals general considerations.
2. Immunogentics : Structure, distribution and function of histocompatibility antigens. Major Histocompatibility gene complex (MHC), HLA and H-2 systems. MHC restriction. Immune response (IR) genes. HLA and disease. Immunogenetics of tissue transplantation. HLA-typing. Mechanism of graft rejection with particular reference to Kidney and bonemarrow transplantations. Avoidance of transplant reactions.
3. Immunopathology:
Classification of immunopathological disorders. General account of immune deficiency disorders both primary and secondary type. Acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). Phagocytic cell disorders. Gammopathies. Complement deficiencies. Atopy, allergy and hypersensitiivity (Type I, II, III, IV) reactions. Auto-immunity. Mechanism of development of autoimmune diseases. Immunological aspects of ageing.
4. Tumor Immunology:
Host-tumor interactions. Classification of tumor specific transplantation antigens (TSTA) Host immune response to tumors, antibody dependent cell cytotoxicity (ADCC), Natural Killer (NK) Cells, Immune surveiliance. Tumor escape mechanisms, blocking antibodie. Immunotherapy of cancer. Immunotoxins.

Paper VIII :
Microbial and Molecular Genetics Principles of microbial genetics :
basic procedure and terminology, establishment of crosses, selection and classification of variations, and cis trans complementation. 1. Genome organization in bacteria, viruses and eukaryotic microorganisms, and nucleic acid replication.
2. Genetic analysis of bacteria (inclusing Cyanobacteria and actinomycetes): gene transfer transformation, conjugation, transduction, and methods of gene mapping.
3. Extra-chromosomal genetic elements and their ingeritance.
4. Genetic analysis of bacteriophages including cyanophages.
5. Genetic mechanisms in algae, yeast and moulds.
6. Origin and mechanism of variations in microbes.
7. Gene-protein relationship:transcritpion, translation, genetic code, and regulatrion of gene expression.
8. Genetic engineering; recombinant DNA, restriction endonucleases, vectors, principles of gene cloning, shot-gun, genomic and cDNA cloning, criteria for the expression of recombinant DNA, characterization of recombinant DNA (Genetic, immunochemical and nucleic acid hybridization methods). Sequencing of nucleic acids (Sanger?s and Maxam and Gilbert?s methods), and applications of genetic engineering in medicine, agriculture and industry.

Paper IX : Industrial and Food Microbiology:
I : Industrial Microbiology Introduction to industrial microbial covering suitability of microbes in industrial processes and their source, types of fermentation?s and bioreactors, substrates for industrial fermentations, growth kinetics in batch and continuous fermentation processes, strain improvement, and recent developments in industrial microbiology.
Design of a fermentor instrumentation and control.
Methods for the recovery and purification of fermentation products (down stream processing).
Economic aspects of fermentation processes.
Production aspects (microbial strains, substrate, flow diagrams, product optimization, and applications) of the following :
Industrial alcohol and alcoholic beverages and glycerol; orghanic acids (citric, lactic, acetic, propionic, gluconic, itaconic, gibberellic acids; aminoacids (glutamic, lysine, tryptophan and asparatame); enzymes (Extracellular amylases, proteases, pectinases, lipases, cellulases, xylanases, and intracellular-glucose isomerase, invertase, asparaginase penicillin acylase, lactase), and immobilizedenzymes; Vitamins (Vit. B12 and riboflavin); antibiotics-?-lactam(Penicillin and cephalosporin), aminoacids (D-cycloserine) and peptide (bacitracin), tetracycline, polyenes (nystatin), aromatic (grieseofulvin); microbial transformations fo steriods and steriols, nonsteriod compounds and antibiotics; single cell protein; polysaccharides; recombinant DNA products-insulin, somatostatin, interferon; and microbial insecticides.

II. Food Microbiology Brief history of microorganism in food stuffs; source types and role of microorganisms in foods; intrinsic and extrinsic parameters of foods which affect microbial growth; methods for studying microbes and their products in food stuffs; spoilage of fruits and vegetables, fresh and proceesed meats and poultry, and miscellaneous foods such as eggs, bakery products, dairy products, beer and wines, fermented foods, and canned foods; food preservation with chemicals irradiation, low and high temperatures and drying ; manufacture of fermented foods dairy products (acidophilus milk,cheese, yoghurt), meat and fishery products (dry sausages and fish sauces), plant products (cocoa beans, coffee beans, olives, pickles, saur-kraut, soy sauce, Tempeh , idli), breads, beverages (cider, sake, vineagar, palm wines); food-borne diseases and food poisoning.

Dissertation : During final year.

Admission Eligibility :

B.Sc. (Hons.) Microbiology from Delhi University and other Universities (after 10+2+3) with minimum 60% marks, admision on merit basis.

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  1. amrita pandey
    December 31st, 2009 at 15:30 | #1

    what is the scope of doing M.Sc when not able to qualify net

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